Methylamine: Synthesis, Properties, Uses

Methylamine: Synthesis, Properties, Uses

Introduction

Methylamine, a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH3NH2, have an important role in various industrial processes and applications. This article delves into the multifaceted aspects of methylamine, exploring its physical and chemical properties, synthesis methods, legal status, applications, storage, disposal, and the rules governing its handling.

Methylamine structure

Methylamine Physical Properties

Methylamine exists as a colorless gas with a distinctive, ammonia-like odor similar to rotten fish. It is highly soluble in water (1008 g/L at 20 °C),methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran. Its boiling point is -6.3 °C (-21.3 °F), melting point is −93.10 °C (−135.58 °F). Methylamine's density as a gas is approximately 0.6562 kg/m³, making it significantly lighter than air. These nuanced physical properties play a pivotal role in determining the appropriate storage, transportation, and utilization methods for methylamine in various industrial contexts.

Methylamine hydrochloride (powder form)

Methylamine is highly flammable and has a flashpoint of -10°C, making precautions necessary during transport and use. It is mixed with portions of methanol, ethanol, oxolane, and water to be sold as a solution. Anhydrous Methylamine gas is also transported in pressurized metal containers.

Methylamine Chemical Properties

Methylamine, a primary amine denoted by its molecular structure containing a nitrogen atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms, exhibits a rich array of chemical properties that underpin its versatility in diverse applications. The presence of the amino group imparts distinctive reactivity to methylamine, rendering it both a base and a nucleophile.

Methylamine Lewis structure

In chemical reactions, methylamine engages in processes such as nucleophilic substitution, addition (condensation) and various transformations vital in organic synthesis. Its role as a precursor is particularly noteworthy, facilitating the creation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other complex organic compounds. Furthermore, methylamine's amine nature allows it to participate in acid-base reactions, forming salts with acids.

Methylamine Synthesis Ways

Methylamine was first prepared in 1849 by Charles-Adolphe Wurtz via the hydrolysis of methyl isocyanate and related compounds. An example of this process includes the use of the Hofmann rearrangement, to yield methylamine from acetamide and bromine gas.

Laboratory ways

In the laboratory, methylamine hydrochloride is readily prepared by various other methods. One method entails treating formaldehyde with ammonium chloride.

[NH4]Cl + CH2O → [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2O

[CH2=NH2]Cl + CH2O + H2O → [CH3NH3]Cl + HCOOH

The colorless hydrochloride salt can be converted to an amine by the addition of a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH):

[CH3NH3]Cl + NaOH → CH3NH2 + NaCl + H2O

Another method entails reducing nitromethane with zinc and hydrochloric acid.

CH3NO2 + 2HCl + Zn → CH3NH2 + ZnCl2

Another method of methylamine production is spontaneous decarboxylation of glycine with a strong base in water.

Industrial way

Methylamines are produced commercially by aminating methanol in the presence of aluminosilicate catalysts (Zeolites). Ammonia reacts with methanol in the vapor phase to produce separate products, namely- MMA(Monomethylamine), DMA(Dimethylamine) & TMA(Trimethylamine). The reaction process and equation are shown below:

CH3OH + NH3 → CH3NH2 + H2O

Methylamine reaction process

Methylamine is also produced by the reaction of formaldehyde with ammonium chloride salt. Both gaseous and liquid methylamines are used as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, laboratory reagents, and tanning agents. Agrochemicals are the main drivers of the methylamine industry.

With a primary amine group attached to it, methylamine acts as a good nucleophile.

Methylamine Applications

Representative commercially significant chemicals produced from methylamine include the pharmaceuticals ephedrine and theophylline, the pesticides carbofuran, carbaryl, and metham sodium, and the solvents N-methylformamide and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). Such valuable for industry substances are also produced from methylamine: N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, methylformamide, caffeine, and N,N'-dimethyl urea. The preparation of some surfactants and photographic developers require methylamine as a building block.

Methylamine is widely used in drug manufacturing syntheses like MDMA, bk-MDMA, methamphetamine, mephedrone (4-MMC) and its isomers, Ephedrine and others. The most of them are represented on BB Forum.

Methylamine Legal Status

Methylamine holds a complex legal standing globally, primarily due to its association with illicit activities, especially in the illegal production of methamphetamine. Governments and regulatory bodies have imposed stringent controls and regulations on the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of methylamine to curb its diversion for unlawful purposes.

In many jurisdictions, methylamine is classified as a controlled substance under narcotics or precursor chemical laws. This classification imposes strict restrictions on its production, import, export, and distribution. Individuals and entities involved in handling methylamine must comply with licensing requirements and adhere to comprehensive record-keeping procedures to ensure transparency and traceability.

Moreover, international cooperation plays a pivotal role in regulating methylamine due to its potential for cross-border trafficking. Various conventions and agreements, such as the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, include provisions addressing the control of precursor chemicals like methylamine.

Storage

Safe and responsible storage of methylamine is a critical aspect of its management due to its unique physical properties and potential hazards. Typically encountered in its gaseous state, methylamine is stored in high-pressure cylinders designed to withstand the specific conditions associated with its transportation and storage.

To minimize the risks associated with methylamine, storage facilities must adhere to stringent safety protocols. Proper ventilation systems are essential to prevent the accumulation of gas and ensure a controlled environment. Additionally, temperature control measures are implemented to maintain stability and prevent fluctuations that could compromise the integrity of the storage containers.

Given methylamine's affinity for aqueous solutions, storage facilities must account for potential reactions with moisture. Facilities are equipped with moisture control systems, and stringent monitoring is in place to prevent unintended reactions that may compromise the quality and safety of the stored methylamine.

Methylamine hydrochloride salt has solid state at normal conditions. This aspect make this methylamine form more attractive and convenient for transportation and postal delivery.

Disposal

Disposing of methylamine requires adherence to environmental regulations. Treatment methods may include neutralization, chemical degradation, or incineration in approved facilities. Careful consideration must be given to prevent environmental contamination and ensure the safe disposal of by-products.

Toxicity and rules for handling the substance

Methylamine poses health risks, primarily through inhalation or skin contact. It can cause irritation to the respiratory system, eyes, and skin. Proper personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, is crucial when handling methylamine. Additionally, adherence to established safety protocols, including proper ventilation and emergency response procedures, is essential to minimize the risks associated with its use.

The LD50 (mouse, s.c.) is 2.5 g/kg.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have set occupational exposure limits at 10 ppm or 12 mg/m3 over an eight-hour time-weighted average.

Conclusion

In summary, methylamine emerges as a compound of significant versatility, finding applications across industries, both legitimate and otherwise. Appreciating its diverse properties, legal intricacies, and the importance of safe handling becomes paramount for those engaged in its synthesis, distribution, and use. A comprehensive understanding of methylamine is vital not only for fostering responsible industrial practices but also for mitigating potential risks associated with its multifaceted applications.

Bibliography

Corbin, David R., Stephan Schwarz, and George C. Sonnichsen. "Methylamines synthesis: A review." Catalysis today 37.2 (1997): 71-102. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0920586197000035

  1. EHRMANTRAUT

    METHYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE (HCL)- is no joke

    And so, this post is designed more for new users. the purpose of this post is to get rid of small mistakes during the preparation of methylamine. if you already know everything and this article is not new to you, then please just put a bold "Like" and you can add your experience in the comments...
  2. fidelis

    link to "detailed methods for non-chemists"

    hey :3 i would copy-paste this like i usually do with vespiary stuff but theres a lot of info so i decided 2 leave it in link form. there are many syntheses and theyre easy 2 read and perfect for beginners. enjoy! https://www.thevespiary.org/rhodium/Rhodium/hive/hiveboard/methods/000023325.html
  3. G.Patton

    Methylamine Freebase Solution Preparation

    Introduction This post is written with a purpose to explain how to prepare methylamine freebase aqueous (cas 74-89-5) and methanol (cas 74-89-5) solution with known concentration from methylamine hydrochloride (cas 593-51-1) from. This issue is frequently met by customers around EU and other...
  4. K

    Question about Methylamine 40% aq. solution

    What exactly does 40% stand for? I believe 40% wt./wt. should be 664g MeNH2 in 1L of H2O. (997g/mol (H2O) / 60% * 40%) This would mean that 1 liter would contain ~21 mols of methylamine. (664g / 31.1g/mol) The following listing shows that it only should have 12 mol/l...
  5. D

    Methylamine from Polymethylamine?

    Hello everyone, ever since I've been on the forum and started looking at all the drug synths, and what kind of stuff they require, like chemicals and reagents, I've gotten into the habit of looking at the packaging of all the cleaning or unclogging products, and so on. I recently came across a...
  6. Cargo Chemicals

    Methylamine w/w aqueous solution 40%

    Purity: 40% CAS: 74-89-5 Formula: CH5N Our company carries out the delivery of any goods that are not prohibited by law from China to the EU. You can receive your goods in a specially equipped cache or by courier delivery.
  7. Username.Required

    UK Source For Methylamine? in Aqueous

    Question Looking for a vendor 
    I know China now have a ban on Methylamine Aqueous. I have ordered from a EU supplier and have had difficulty with waiting and haven't received from the EU country to UK for 2 weeks now and I want to see if anyone knows of any UK sources for methylamine? I've had a look at the suppliers but I...
  8. Winni Win

    methylamine 40% aqueous solution CAS 74-89-5

    Payment Terms: TT, Bitcoin, USDT, XMR, Western Union, MoneyGram, Escrow Delivery: 100% safe, fast, secure, and discreet with undetectable packaging and delivery worldwide Price: 1L USD70/L 25L USD50/L 100L USD40/L (FOB price and shipping cost will be added according to the destination country)
  9. Doris1888

    Dimethylamine Hydrochloride CAS 506-59-2

    FOB Price(for reference only): 1kg...........$70USD/kg 100kg..........$15USD/kg Product Name: Dimethylamine hydrochloride CAS NO: 506-59-2 EINECS: 208-046-5 Molecular Formula: C2H8ClN Molecular Weight: 81.54 Melting Point: 170-173 °C(lit.) Boiling Point: 95.79°C (rough estimate)...
  10. EHRMANTRAUT

    alternative to methylamine

    I have a question for chemistry lovers: why can't you use monoethanolamine as an alternative to methylamine? If you mix ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and formaldehyde (HCHO), the reaction will probably be similar to getting methylamine (CH3NH2), which is formed when formaldehyde reacts with...
  11. handle

    "The Racers Edge!"

    This reaction makes roughly 3 moles of methylamine dissolved in methanol. Nitromethane model airplane fuel to methylamine, one needs a 2 or 3 necked flask, a good condenser, and a sep funnel. The flask should be at least 2000 ml in capacity. Into the flask put about 150g of heavy duty aluminum...
  12. xile

    methylamin 40% from methylamin HCl

    Question 
    If one wants to make a 40% solution of methylamine in water from methylamin HCl, then he has to dissolve NaOH in 6 parts water and then add 4 parts methylamine HCl. How much NaOH does one need for this? This reaction also produces NaCl, right? Does one have to cut off this NaCl by...
  13. SonicNL

    Methylamine hydrochloride to 40 aquaous solition

    I cannot seem to find the correct way to convert methylamine hydrochloride to a 40% aqaous solution. If you are the one who knows how to do it, sharing your knowledge would be really appreciated.
  14. Doris1888

    Methylamine 40% Solution CAS 74-89-5

    Methylamine CAS 74-89-5 Usage Methylamine is an important aliphatic amine organic chemical used in various industries such as dye manufacturing, cellulose, acetate rayon processing, fuel additives, rocket propellants, and leather tanning processes. What To Do After Exposure To Methylamine CAS...
  15. mejdubulok

    Мethylamine hydrochloride

    greetings, friends;). Tell us how to work with methylamine hydrochloride?:unsure: Is it necessary to dissolve it or can it be put directly into the reactor? thanks.
  16. L

    Methylamine 30% in methanol solution

    Looking for a vendor 
    Does anyone have a vendor for methylamine in methanol that shipps to the uk, thanks for any replys
  17. L

    Methanol in Methylamine synthesis

    Question 
    Hi there, i plan on doing a reductive amination and i want to make a litre solution of anhydrous methylamine in methanol with a concentration of around 30-33%. My thought process was i would add 675 grams of methylamine HCl to 1L of methanol and stir. I would then add 399 grams of crushed...
  18. BlueDex

    Methiopropamine synthesis

    Chloroform can react with chlorine gas and iron powder to form carbon tetrachloride and forms hydrogen chloride as a byproduct. Thiophene is brominated to 2-Bromothiophene with bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride. 2-Bromothiophene can react with ethyl acetoacetate and sodium ethoxide and using...
  19. Methylamine HCl synthesis

    Methylamine HCl synthesis

    https://bbgate.com/threads/methylamine-hydrochloride-synthesis-large-scale.617/ NileRed video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wuyouolU5LY
  20. WillD

    Mephedrone (4-MMC) synthesis from haloketone in ethyl acetate. 1-10 kg Scale.

    Reaction scheme: Reagents: 1. 4'-Methylpropiophenone (cas 5337-93-9) 1 kg; 2. Hydrobromic acid 48% 1300 ml; 3. Hydrogen peroxide 35% 750 ml; 4. Sodium/potassium hydroxide 25% (NaOH/KOH) aqueous solution; 5. Distilled water; 6. Ethyl acetate 6 l; 7. Methylamine 40% aq - 2 l; 8. Acetone - 8 l...
  • Free product samples

    Testing products from new vendors and manufacturers.

    Get free samples for testing now!

  • Always stay in touch with BB forum. Element/Matrix.

    Connect notifications to always stay in touch with the forum!

    Connect

Top